Design with the experience and learning/performance objectives in mind! Two tips:
Do not start from adding game mechanics without having a vision how the user experience should flow. Yes, you do M(echanics)->D(ynamics)->A(esthetics) but the user will only care about (and probably see) A. You’re not selling the cogs and wheels. You’re selling the experience of “flying.”
Find the MVP (minimal viable product) that includes the core experience that makes the learning engaging. That core experience MUST work well. Create a prototype and test it. Test it often and tweak. Often times, you don’t need to built a full-scale professional bicycle to create the excitement of “flying”.